Patanjali's Ashtanga Yoga: A Bibliometric Analysis Of Its Impact On Health And Well-Being

Main Article Content

Dr Anurodh Sisodia
Dr Ajay Kumar
Iti Jain


Objective: This bibliometric analysis seeks to summarize research papers on Patanjali's Ashtanga Yoga and investigate its influence on health and well-being.

Methods: A thorough search of the PubMed database was done to find papers that were pertinent to Ashtanga Yoga. VOSviewer software was used to retrieve and analyze 2,864 articles in total.

Findings: The examination uncovered a wide range of advantages linked to Ashtanga Yoga, such as enhancements in psychological, immunological, and neurological well-being, improved quality of life, and heightened levels of awareness. Research has demonstrated that Ashtanga Yoga effectively mitigates stress, sadness, and anxiety, while concurrently enhancing cardiovascular and mental well-being, alleviating persistent pain, and optimizing sleep quality. The ethical standards delineated in Yama and Niyama were recognized as factors that contribute to self-discipline and ethical deliberations. Moreover, the bodily positions (Asanas), strategies for controlling breath (Pranayama), and withdrawal of senses (Pratyahara) that are linked to Ashtanga Yoga were discovered to have beneficial impacts on different elements of health and overall well-being. The ultimate stages of Ashtanga Yoga, namely Dharana, Dhyan, and Samadhi, were emphasized for their ability to promote deep internal focus, mindfulness, and spiritual illumination.

Conclusion: This bibliometric research highlights the holistic approach of Patanjali's Ashtanga Yoga to enhance physical, mental, and spiritual well-being. The results indicate that Ashtanga Yoga provides significant knowledge for improving general well-being and cultivating a sense of inner balance and spiritual awareness.

Article Details

How to Cite
Aakash, Dr Anurodh Sisodia, Dr Ajay Kumar, & Iti Jain. (2023). Patanjali’s Ashtanga Yoga: A Bibliometric Analysis Of Its Impact On Health And Well-Being. Journal for ReAttach Therapy and Developmental Diversities, 6(1), 1003–1013.
Author Biographies


PhD Scholar, Centre for Yogic Sciences, Jiwaji University Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh India

Dr Anurodh Sisodia

Professor, UGC-MMTC, LNIPE Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, India

Dr Ajay Kumar

Head of Department of Physical Education, Government College Chinnor, Gwalior Madhya Pradesh, India

Iti Jain

PhD Scholar, Department of Yogic Science, LNIPE Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh India


North, R. C. (1963). International Relations: Putting the Pieces Together. Background, 7(3), 119.

Paul, K. I., & Moser, K. (2006). Incongruence as an explanation for the negative mental health effects of unemployment: Meta‐analytic evidence. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 79(4), 595–621.

Straker, L., & Mathiassen, S. E. (2009). Increased physical work loads in modern work – a necessity for better health and performance? Ergonomics, 52(10), 1215–1225.

Berthoud, H.-R. (2004). Neural control of appetite: Cross-talk between homeostatic and non-homeostatic systems. Appetite, 43(3), 315–317.

Ross, A., & Thomas, S. (2010). The Health Benefits of Yoga and Exercise: A Review of Comparison Studies. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 16(1), 3–12.

&Na; (2008). What is yoga?: Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants, 21(2), 36.

Loewenthal, J. V., Farkas, E. J., McGough, K., Tomita, B., Wayne, P. M., & Orkaby, A. R. (2023). The impact of yoga on aging physiology: A review. The Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging, 100005.

Chapple, C. K. (2020). The Academic Study of Yoga in India. Journal of Dharma Studies, 3(1), 107–120.

Maheshwari, A. K., & Werd, M. R. P. (2021). Yoga Sutras and Well-Being. In S. K. Dhiman (Ed.), The Palgrave Handbook of Workplace Well-Being (pp. 945–967). Springer International Publishing.

Patañjali. (1975). The Yoga sutras of Patanjali : the book of the spiritual man : an interpretation. London :Watkins,

Govindaraj, R., Karmani, S., Varambally, S., & Gangadhar, B. N. (2016). Yoga and physical exercise – a review and comparison. International Review of Psychiatry, 28(3), 242–253.

Manjunath, N. (2023). The transformative impact of the International Day of Yoga. International Journal of Yoga, 16(1), 1.

(PTI, 2015, information based on MHRD, Govt. of India)

Hart, N., Fawkner, S., Niven, A., & Booth, J. (2022). Scoping Review of Yoga in Schools: Mental Health and Cognitive Outcomes in Both Neurotypical and Neurodiverse Youth Populations. Children, 9(6), 849.

Lea, J., Philo, C., & Cadman, L. (2016). ‘It’s a fine line between . . . self discipline, devotion and dedication’: Negotiating authority in the teaching and learning of Ashtanga yoga. Cultural Geographies, 23(1), 69–85.

Padhy, S. (2016). The Technology of Yoga - An Imperative Scientific Implementation to Harmonize the Diversity of Human Society: A Review. Journal of Biodiversity, 7(2), 77–87.

The Four Parts of Mind in Yoga - Buddhi, Manas, Ahankara and Chitta Pov mind-stress/parts-of-mind/ Accessed: 2024-01-22.

Kumar, S. B., Yadav, R., Yadav, R. K., Tolahunase, M., & Dada, R. (2015). Telomerase Activity and Cellular Aging Might Be Positively Modified by a Yoga-Based Lifestyle Intervention. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 21(6), 370–372.

Chitta Bhumis (चित्तभूमयः) – Dharmawiki Accessed: 2024-01-22.

Vyasa - Wikipedia Accessed: 2024-01-22.

Roy, G. (2021). Ashtang Yoga: For Attaining the State of Mindfulness. Journal of Indian Council of Philosophical Research, 38(3), 445–452.

Bhavanani, Ananda. (2010). An overview of the Yoga Sutras. Integral Yoga Magazine. 2010. 8-10.

Dwitayasa, I. M. (2020). Hidup Sehat Bersama Yoga. JURNAL YOGA DAN KESEHATAN, 1(1), 83.

Krishna, D., Eliade, M., & Trask, W. R. (1960). Yoga: Immortality and Freedom. Philosophy East and West, 10(3/4), 173.

Kumar, V., Kumari, P., & Sharma, T. (2017). Yoga and Mental Health: A Review. Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology, Vol. 43.

Markil, N., Geithner, C. A., & Penhollow, T. M. (2010). HATHA YOGA: Benefits and Principles for a More Meaningful Practice. ACSM’S Health & Fitness Journal, 14(5), 19–24.

Singh, R. (2016). Yog: A Larger Perspective. Academic Discourse, 5, 93-99.

Telles, S., & Singh, N. (Eds.). (2018). Research-Based Perspectives on the Psychophysiology of Yoga: IGI Global.

Iyengar, B. K. S. (1996). Light on the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. Philosophy East and West, 46(2), 291.


Bahiranga - The External Aspect of the 8-Fold Path of Yoga - The Yoga Institute. (n.d.). Retrieved January 23, 2024, from

What is Bahiranga? - Definition from Yogapedia. (n.d.). Retrieved January 23, 2024, from

Antaranga-The Internal Aspect of the 8-Fold Path of Yoga - The Yoga Institute. (n.d.). Retrieved January 23, 2024, from

Division of Yoga and Physical Sciences, S-VYASA Deemed-to-be-University, No.19, Eknath Bhavan, Gavipuram Circle, Kempegowdanagar, Bengaluru, 560019, Karnataka, India., Xu, W., Kumar, I. R., & Srinivasan, T. M. (2021). Evaluation of Impact of Ethics of Yoga in the Psychological Health of College Students: A Randomized Control Trial. Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 14(12), 995–1005.

Sharma, S., & Rawat, V. (2023). The need for Yamā and Niyamā in promoting adolescents’ physical and mental well-being. Journal of Applied Consciousness Studies, 11(1), 51–51.

Büssing, A., Bretz, S. V., & Beerenbrock, Y. (2021). Ethical Principles of Yoga Philosophy in Western Yoga Practitioners: Validation of the Yama/Niyama Questionnaire. Complementary Medicine Research, 28(4), 325–335.

Saha, M., Halder, K., Tomar, O. S., Pathak, A., & Pal, R. (2014). Yoga for Preventive, Curative, and Promotive Health and Performance. In S. B. Singh, N. R. Prabhakar, & S. N. Pentyala (Eds.), Translational Research in Environmental and Occupational Stress (pp. 169–180). Springer India.

Ryan, A. J. (1962). Be young with Yoga. JAMA, 182(11).

Chu, P., Gotink, R. A., Yeh, G. Y., Goldie, S. J., & Hunink, M. M. (2016). The effectiveness of yoga in modifying risk factors for cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, 23(3), 291–307.

Guddeti, R. R., Dang, G., Williams, M. A., & Alla, V. M. (2019). Role of Yoga in Cardiac Disease and Rehabilitation. Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention, 39(3), 146–152.

Novaes, M. M., Palhano-Fontes, F., Onias, H., Andrade, K. C., Lobão-Soares, B., Arruda-Sanchez, T., Kozasa, E. H., Santaella, D. F., & De Araujo, D. B. (2020). Effects of Yoga Respiratory Practice (Bhastrika pranayama) on Anxiety, Affect, and Brain Functional Connectivity and Activity: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 11, 467.

Campanelli, S., Lopes Tort, A., & Lobão-Soares, B. (2020). Pranayamas and their neurophysiological effects. International Journal of Yoga, 13(3), 183.

Yackle, K., Schwarz, L. A., Kam, K., Sorokin, J. M., Huguenard, J. R., Feldman, J. L., Luo, L., & Krasnow, M. A. (2017). Breathing control center neurons that promote arousal in mice. Science, 355(6332), 1411–1415.

Pêgo, J. M., Sousa, J. C., Almeida, O., & Sousa, N. (2009). Stress and the Neuroendocrinology of Anxiety Disorders. In M. B. Stein & T. Steckler (Eds.), Behavioral Neurobiology of Anxiety and Its Treatment (Vol. 2, pp. 97–118). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.


Telles, S., Singh, N., Gupta, R. K., & Balkrishna, A. (2016). A selective review of dharana and dhyana in healthy participants. Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine, 7(4), 255–260.

Nehru, S., & Jothilakshmi, M. (2016). Samadhi Is the Ultimate State of Realization of Self. Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research.

Tang, R., Friston, K. J., & Tang, Y.-Y. (2020). Brief Mindfulness Meditation Induces Gray Matter Changes in a Brain Hub. Neural Plasticity, 2020, 1–8.

Luders, E., Toga, A. W., Lepore, N., & Gaser, C. (2009). The underlying anatomical correlates of long-term meditation: Larger hippocampal and frontal volumes of gray matter. NeuroImage, 45(3), 672–678.

Kumar, A., & Jhajharia, B. (2018). Effect Of Morning Exercise On Immunity. International Journal of Physiology, Nutrition And Physical Education, 3(1), 1987-1989.

Brown, C. G. (2019). Modern Ashtanga Yoga. In C. G. Brown, Debating Yoga and Mindfulness in Public Schools (pp. 68–85). University of North Carolina Press.

Csala, B., Springinsfeld, C. M., & Köteles, F. (2021). The Relationship Between Yoga and Spirituality: A Systematic Review of Empirical Research. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 695939.

Damkjær, C. (2022). Slowness Out of Sync—Understandings of Time in Ashtanga Yoga. Sport, Ethics and Philosophy, 16(2), 207–220.

Department of Philosophy, ZHDC, Delhi University, & Kumar Gupta, A. (2012). Materialism Versus Spirituality: Neo-Vedanta Approach of Synthesis. Idea. Studia Nad Strukturą i Rozwojem Pojęć Filozoficznych, 24, 305–314.

Desai, R., Tailor, A., & Bhatt, T. (2015). Effects of yoga on brain waves and structural activation: A review. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 21(2), 112–118.

Fox, J. P. (2010). The Role of Self-Awareness and Communication in Issues of Health and Aging. In T. W. Miller (Ed.), Handbook of Stressful Transitions Across the Lifespan (pp. 389–408). Springer New York.

Hanna, R., & Thompson, E. (2003). Neurophenomenology and the Spontaneity of Consciousness. Canadian Journal of Philosophy Supplementary Volume, 29, 133–162.

Kasser, T. (2016). Materialistic Values and Goals. Annual Review of Psychology, 67(1), 489–514.

Popkin, B. M., Adair, L. S., & Ng, S. W. (2012). Global nutrition transition and the pandemic of obesity in developing countries. Nutrition Reviews, 70(1), 3–21.

Radebe, J.-X. (2021). The Ancient Wisdom and Resurgence for Yoga: A Sociological Perspective. In N. Mthembu (Ed.), Advances in Educational Technologies and Instructional Design (pp. 206–227). IGI Global.

Riazi, G. (2012). How cognition controls health and disease. Archives of Advances in Biosciences, 3(2).


Younge, J. O., Gotink, R. A., Baena, C. P., Roos-Hesselink, J. W., & Hunink, M. M. (2015). Mind–body practices for patients with cardiac disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, 22(11), 1385–1398.

Taneja, D. (2014). Yoga and health. Indian Journal of Community Medicine, 39(2), 68.

Büssing, A., Michalsen, A., Khalsa, S. B. S., Telles, S., & Sherman, K. J. (2012). Effects of Yoga on Mental and Physical Health: A Short Summary of Reviews. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2012, 1–7.

MEA | Search Result. (n.d.). Retrieved February 5, 2024, from,_historia_y_desarrollo

Gothe, N. P., Khan, I., Hayes, J., Erlenbach, E., & Damoiseaux, J. S. (2019). Yoga Effects on Brain Health: A Systematic Review of the Current Literature. Brain Plasticity, 5(1), 105–122.