The correlation analysis between the estimation of VO₂max using the Harvard step test, Queens' college step test, 90-90 Queens' college step test, and the measured VO₂max value from Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing (CPX)

Main Article Content

Jin-Seop Kim
Jong-Seon Oh
Seong-Gil Kim


Introduction: The maximal oxygen uptake (VO₂max), indicative of cardiorespiratory endurance, is typically assessed using Cardiopulmonary Exercise Test (CPX) with a metabolic cart, a method limited by its high cost and technical requirements. Alternative step tests, like the Harvard Step Test, Queen’s College Step Test, and the modified 90-90 Queens College Step Test, offer simpler assessment methods. This study examines the correlation between these step tests and CPX for VO₂max estimation.

Objectives: This study aims to investigate the correlation between predicted VO₂max(pVO₂max) obtained from the 90-90 Queens College step test, Harvard step test, and Queen's College step test with CPX VO₂max measurements

Methods: Eighteen male college students in their 20s underwent VO₂max evaluation using CPX and the three step tests. The novel 90-90 Queens College Step Test was included, which adjusts step height to individual body dimensions, potentially enhancing estimation accuracy. Pearson correlation analysis was used to compare the step test results with CPX measurements.

Results: Significant positive correlations were found between CPX VO₂max measurements and pVO₂max values from all step tests, with the 90-90 Queens College Step Test showing a higher correlation. This suggests better accuracy in VO₂max estimation through individualized step height adjustments.

Conclusions: In conclusion, the 90-90 Queens College Step Test offers reliable pVO₂max with consistent exercise loads, making it a preferable choice in situations where CPX equipment is unavailable. Nevertheless, this study has limitations, such as relying solely on Pearson correlation analysis and a small sample size. Future research should aim to overcome these limitations to further enhance the understanding of studies related to VO₂max.

Article Details

How to Cite
Kim, J.-S., Oh, J.-S., & Kim, S.-G. (2023). The correlation analysis between the estimation of VO₂max using the Harvard step test, Queens’ college step test, 90-90 Queens’ college step test, and the measured VO₂max value from Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing (CPX). Journal for ReAttach Therapy and Developmental Diversities, 6(10s(2), 1617–1621.


Montero, David., Candela Diaz-Cañestro., Carsten Lundby (2015) "Endurance Training and V˙ O2max: Role of Maximal Cardiac Output and Oxygen Extraction. Medicine and science in sports and exercise 47.10 2024-2033.

George, James D (1996). "Alternative approach to maximal exercise testing and VO₂max prediction in college students. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 67.4 452-457.

Carter, J. G., Brooks, K. A., Sparks, J. R. (2011). Comparison of the YMCA cycle sub-maximal VO2 max test to a treadmill Vo2 max test. In International Journal of Exercise Science: Conference Proceedings 5.2: 40).


Robertshaw, S. A., J. W. Reed., I.L. Mortimore., J.E.Cotes., A.S. Afacan., J.B.Grogan(1984). Submaximal alternatives to the Harvard pack index as guides to maximal oxygen uptake (physicalfitness). Ergonomics27.2:177-185.

Ramsbottom., Roger., John Brewer., Clyde Williams (1988). A progressive shuttle run test to estimate maximal oxygen uptake. British journal of sports medicine 22.4 141-144.

Hill, DAVID W., A. L. Rowell (1996). "Running velocity at VO₂max." Medicine and science in sports and exercise 28.1: 114-119.

Achten., Juul., Michael Gleeson., Asker E,. Jeukendrup (2002). Determination of the exercise intensity that elicits maximal fat oxidation. Medicine and science in sports and exercise 34.1 : 92-97.

J. R. Day., H. B. Rossiter., E. M. Coats., A. Skasick., B. J. Whipp (2003). The maximally attainable VO2 during exercise in humans: the peak vs. maximum issue. Journal of applied physiology 95.5 :1901-1907.

Martin-Rincon., Marcos., Jose AL Calbet. (2020). Progress update and challenges on V. O2max testing and interpretation. Frontiers in Physiology 11: 1070.

Brouha, Lucien (1943). The step test: A simple method of measuring physical fitness for muscular work in young men Research Quarterly. American Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation 14.1: 31-37.

Bunn. J., Manor. J., Wells. E., Catanzarito. B., Kincer, B., Eschbach, L. C. (2017) Physiological and emotional influence on heart rate recovery after submaximal exercise. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise 12.2: 349-357.

BANDYOPDHYAY., BISHANBINDU., HARIPADA CHATTOPADHYAY (1981). Assessment of physical fitness of sedentary and physically active male college students by a modified Harvard step test. Ergonomics 24.1: 15-20.

McARDLE. W. D., Katch. F. I., Pechar. G. S., Jacobson. L. O. N. I., Ruck. S. (1972). Reliability and interrelationships between maximal oxygen intake, physical work capacity and step-test scores in college women. Medicine and science in sports, 4(4), 182-186.

Kim Jin Seop. (2020). Correlation Analysis of Modified Queen’s College Step Test for Maximum Oxygen Consumption. Korean Journal of Neuro-muscular Rehabilitation. 10(1), 53-59. DOI: 10.37851/kjnr.2020.10.1.6

Larsen, Gary E (2002). Prediction of maximum oxygen consumption from walking, jogging, or running. Research quarterly for exercise and sport 73.1: 66-72

Montoye. H. J., Ayen. T., Washburn. R. A. (1986). The Estimation of [Vdot] O2max from Maximal and Sub-Maximal Measurements in Males, Age 10–39. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 57(3), 250-253.

Kasch. F. W. (1984). The validity of the Astrand and Sjostrand submaximal tests. The Physician and sportsmedicine, 12(8), 47-54.

Chatterjee. S., Chatterjee. P., Mukherjee. P. S., Bandyopadhyay. A. (2004). Validity of Queen’s College step test for use with young Indian men. British journal of sports medicine, 38(3), 289-291.

Bennett. H., Parfitt. G., Davison. K., Eston. R. (2016). Validity of submaximal step tests to estimate maximal oxygen uptake in healthy adults. Sports Medicine, 46, 737-750.

Perroni. F., Cortis. C., Minganti. C., Cignitti. L., Capranica. L (2013). Maximal oxygen uptake of Italian firefighters: laboratory vs. field evaluations. Sport Sciences for Health, 9, 31-35.

Chung. Y. C., Huang. C. Y., Wu, H. J., Kan. N. W., Ho. C. S., Huang. C. C., Chen. H. T. (2021). Predicting maximal oxygen uptake from a 3-minute progressive knee-ups and step test. PeerJ, 9, e10831.